The pending 1999 U.S.-Italy Tax Treaty entered into force on December 16, 2009, when Italy and the United States exchanged the instruments of ratification.

The new U.S.-Italy Tax Treaty (PDF) is effective from February 1, 2009, for income subject to withholding tax and from January 1 2010, for all other provisions of the treaty.

The 1999 U.S.-Italy Tax Treaty remained pending for ten years due to certain general anti abuse provisions for the application of the reduced withholding tax rates on dividends interest and royalties, and some other issues concerning the exchange of information provision of the treaty and the arbitration procedure to resolve treaty disputes. Italy waived the anti abuse provisions by means of the exchange of diplomatic notes in April 2006 and February 2007 and ratified the treaty in April 2009.   

The new treaty includes provision on the creditability in the United States of the Italian Regional Tax on Production Activities (IRAP), the application of the US branch profits tax and new withholding tax rates on dividends, interest and royalties, plus a limitation of benefits provision in the protocol. 

The new withholding tax rates are 5 percent for inter-company dividends (namely, dividends paid to a company which owned at least 25 percent of the stock of the distributing company for more than twelve months), 10 percent on interest and zero percent on royalties from copyrights.